Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that spread from person to person through microscopic droplets released into the air, This can happen when someone with the untreated, active form of tuberculosis coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs or sings, Although tuberculosis is contagious, it’s not easy to catch.
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CAUSES OF TUBERCLOSIS
The cause of TB is infection of human tissue(s) by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mycobacteria or TB), These bacteria are slow growing, aerobic, and can grow within body cells (an intracellular parasitic bacterium). Its unique cell wall helps protect it from the body’s defenses and gives mycobacteria the ability to retain certain dyes like fuchsine (a reddish dye) after an acid rinse that rarely happens with other bacterial, fungal, or parasitic genera.
Mycobacteria that escape destruction by body defenses may be spread by blood or lymphatic pathways to most organs, with preference to those that oxygenate well, lungs, kidneys, and bones, Typical TB lesions, termed granulomas, usually consist of a central necrotic area, then a zone with macrophages, giant Langerhans cells and lymphocytes that become surrounded by immature macrophages, plasma cells, and more lymphocytes, These granulomas also contain mycobacteria, In latent infections, a fibrous capsule usually surrounds the granulomas, and in some people, the granulomas calcify, but if the immune defenses fail initially or at a later time (reactivate), the bacteria continue to spread and disrupt organ functions.
TREATMENT TO TURBERCULOSIS
The treatment for TB depends on the type of TB infection and drug sensitivity of the mycobacteria. For latent TB, three anti-TB drugs are used in four different recommended schedules. The drugs are isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF; Ritalin), and rifapentine (RPT; Pristine) and the CDC’s four recommended schedules are below and are chosen by the treating doctor based on the patients overall health and type of TB the patient was likely exposed to.
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